way of studying human cognitive plasticity. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085229 Neuroplasticity is the brain’s capacity to continue growing and evolving in response to life experiences. Behavioral plasticity refers to a change in an organism's behavior that results from exposure to stimuli, such as changing environmental conditions. Topics covered include evolution and genetic variability; sensory bases of infant perception; and learning and ethology. The importance of developmental plasticity for human health was highlighted by the work of David Barker who suggested that fetal adaptations to environmental cues might be the root cause of many chronic degenerative diseases (Barker, 1998). My sighted sons in their (occasionally excruciatingly) prolonged developmental periods are learning to carry out a vast number of tasks that lie far out-side normal evolutionary demands: reading, chess, algebra, and soccer (Dehaene & Cohen 2007). Of all the questions addressed in the field of psychology perhaps the most important relate to the issue of human plasticity, or in other words, the human capacity to change. Similar developmental differences can be observed in gene expression studies, with delayed peak activity of genes involved in synaptogenesis and neuronal plasticity in humans compared to chimpanzees and macaques (Liu et al., 2012). What Is Brain Plasticity? Behavior can change more rapidly in response to changes in internal or external stimuli than is the case for most morphological traits and many physiological traits. Humans have biological plasticity, or an ability to adapt biologically to our environment.An adaptation is any variation that can increase one’s biological fitness in a specific environment; more simply it is the successful interaction of a population with its environment.Adaptations may be biological or cultural in nature. Plasticity peaks in childhood, a time when our brains are primed to change in response to experiences. New research has given a renewed, positive view of the human brain and its potential for change and development throughout life. There are two kinds of plasticity: experience-expectant and experience-dependent. In the past decade there has been a fundamental change in our understanding of human brain capacity. Early researchers believed that neurogenesis, or the creation of new neurons, stopped shortly after birth. In experience-expectant plasticity, external inputs during critical developmental windows guide normal development … The human brain is now considered to be a highly dynamic and constantly reorganizing system capable of […] Its roots trace to the classic “nature versus nurture” debate introduced in the nineteenth century in scientific discourse, that is, the question of the origins of individual differences as a result of environmental versus genetic influences. 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