Like so many greens, the young leaves can top salads or tuck into sandwiches, while mature greens are delicious cooked. India has been one of the largest producer of Amaranth seeds since ancient times and is … Don’t worry if you can’t strain out all the chaff, it’s edible, though the texture is a little rougher. After that the leaves get bitter, and you can let the plant go to seed. because of the numerous health benefits of Amaranth. Packed with protein and other nutrients, amaranth seeds can be simmered in water, popped like popcorn, or even made into a quick breakfast porridge in the microwave. AMARANTH Amaranth was a major grain crop during the Inca and Aztec dynasties of South America and Mexico and is now an important grain crop in parts of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and China •. Human translations with examples: அமர்நாத், முழு தானிய, आटे का आटा, solam தானிய, பார்லி அரிசி, பல தானிய மாவு. Amaranth is a grain that thrives in high temperatures, is largely resistant to drought and is seen as a heartier crop than corn. These seeds were very early adopted by several Asian nations such as India, China, Nepal, etc. Source: USDA. I love everything about food. If the idea of threshing your own grains sounds intimidating, you’re starting with the right plant! Sounds like something I’d like in my garden. It might just top the list of your favorite whole grains, too! Plant the seeds in warm soil and cover them with a thin layer of compost. You may want to wear gloves. A mixture of 2.5 tablespoons of neem oil per gallon of water is usually effective. Though to be honest, what really drew me to the amaranth plant is its folk name: pigweed. After the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors in Mexico in the early 1500s, amaranth almost disap- peared in the Americas as a crop until research began on it in the U.S. in the 1970s. Amaranth is considered one of the easiest grains to thresh. If you haven't already, try this popular whole grain. The seeds are eaten as a cereal by the ancient Mayans and Incas in a similar way like quinoa and chia seeds.. Botanically, amaranth is a dicotyledonous plant wherein its leaves as well as grains used as a staple … Als erstes wird die Pfanne ohne Zugabe von Fett stark erhitzt. Studies showed that those with cardiovascular disease who included amaranth in their diets saw a significant decrease in their total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL (bad) cholesterol. Teff is the oldest cultivated food plant believed to have originated in Ethiopia some 5000 years ago. The Aztecs didn’t just grow and eat amaranth. Tall purple amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) looks wildy beautiful and deeply nourishing. MOMO. Several species are raised for amaranth “grain” in Asia and the Americas.Ancient amaranth grains still used include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Amaranth grain seeds close up pattern background. With more protein than most other grains (nine grams per cup), it’s also the only grain that contains vitamin C, plus a high amount of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. In a small bowl whisk together miso, tea, and mirin until smooth. You can also use a spray of neem oil and water to control mildew. red rice and nigella seed through Drain off the soaking … Amaranth is not a fussy plant, it grows like a weed with little help. We know Amaranth today under a variation of the Greek name, amarantos, or “un-fading”. Amaranth seed is one of the oldest crop in this universe and has been used since ancient times as a highly nutritious & healthy food due to its high quality of protein, minerals, dietary fiber, lipid content & low source of starch or gluten content. Mix it with quinoa or couscous as an unique base for curries and/or stews. Now, amaranth grains can add delicious variety to your diet. Species across the genus contain concentric rings of vascular bundles, and fix carbon efficiently with a C4 photosynthetic pathway. It can also be used for leaf production until the plant is 2 feet tall. During the last ten years, a number of overviews have been published whichprovide a wide range of information on the nutritional components,digestibility and potential problems that will be encountered by those who… Just pluck the young leaves from the plants and enjoy. Gluten-free, no added anything! Amaranth is a c4 plant which grows well under low fertility and high temperatures (Wyn-Williams & Logan 1985), and is one of the few non-grasses to produce significant amounts of grain. It is a nutritional powerhouse that continues to grow in popularity, especially as gluten-free diets are being followed more. Amaranth cultivation in Jumla district in NepalPhotos: LI-BIRD T he nutritious grain that mountain peoples of the Americas and high Asia cultivated were displaced by wheat and rice, but they are staging a comeback thanks to growing public consciousness about health. The amaranth plant is a delicious species, with a rich history in variety of cultures. Amaranth seed are used in the same manner as grains like quinoa grain and buckwheat grain. and other Asian region. While many parts of the world laud amaranth grain as a superfood, using the leaves as a culinary practice remains unique to parts of Asia. Culturally amaranth grains are associated with purity in Nepal and used as a food that can be consumed even during religious fasting. Grain amaranth is traditionally grown in small plots by direct sowing or transplanting, and in sole cropping as well as intercropping systems. On a cloudy day, spritz it lightly on affected leaves. Because of its high protein and low calorie value, it is an effective weight loss tool, additionally preventing excess buildup of LDL, or "bad" cholesterol.Amaranth is an excellent source of manganese, a mineral that plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, promotes … because of the numerous health benefits of Amaranth. Amaranth is thought to have originated in Peru. It varies in color from black (vegetable type) to golden (grain type), and heating causes it to pop to form a light, white product (shown at the bottom). Though to be honest, what really drew me to the amaranth plant is its folk name: pigweed. Keep the drying flowers away from humidity and direct light while they dry. Amaranth grains have a malty, nutty flavor that pairs well with sweet and savory dishes alike. Cultivation of amaranth was widespread across central Mexico and was a staple for ancient civilisations of the region but today it is a minor crop even in those areas. leaves) in places such as Africa, India and Nepal. It’s good to know that while you’re eating your amaranth green omelet, the garden is full of food you can share with hungry piglets! Amaranth-Pops selbst gemacht. The grain and the chaff will both fall from the flowers into the bag as you shake. 500 gm Amaranth leaves (red chaulai) 1 medium onion slice. Ancient amaranth grains still used to this day include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Wow: a grain that sustains a healthy, un-fading life. Technically a seed, not a grain, amaranth is naturally free of gluten. Today amaranth is enjoyed around the world. The chaff—which is lighter—blows away, leaving the heavier grains in the dish. Amaranth is a group of more than 60 different species of grains that have been cultivated for about 8,000 years. Keep them in their pots until you’re confident the nights are warm enough for them. Set aside. However, its … It grows very rapidly, especially under conditions of high temperatures, bright light and dry soil thereby tolerating dry conditions. our “The New Delicious” food Adds texture to cakes and pastry. But the Aztecs weren’t the only culture to embrace this wonder plant. 100% Amaranth Flour Finely ground amaranth grain. Amaranth is an herbal plant that has been used for many years in other countries and has been making a splash in recent years in the U.S. in the remote far western mountains of Nepal. Fluff so that leaves are not stuck together. Jantare, I came to know that quinoa isn't found it Nepal. Authors; Authors and affiliations; S. Gudu; V. K. Gupta; Article. My lovely husband, Santosh Chumi, has always been there supporting me through the whole process and we work as a team running this small business where we have put our hearts and souls. Grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) It is a great source of the essential amino acids lysine, which is rare in plant-based foods. In India, Mexico, Nepal, and Peru, it’s a traditional ingredient for breakfast porridge. Roasting the seeds is another great way to add hearty proteins and healthy carbohydrates into your meals. References . And eh voila! This plant can grow up to 7 feet tall (about 2.1 meters), although most plants are 5 feet (about 1.5 meters) or less. However, we did like the malty, slightly nutty flavor and were determined to figure out what to do with it. … 90 Downloads; 15 Citations; Summary. Grain amaranth: A promising crop for marginal areas of Kenya. Joseph’s Coat amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), for example, is a delightful variegated option. Opopeo Amaranth Grain (Amaranthus cruentus) – This is my favorite variety because it is easy to grow and versatile. AMARANTH Amaranth was a major grain crop during the Inca and Aztec dynasties of South America and Mexico and is now an important grain crop in parts of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and China •. Sautee older amaranth greens in garlicky olive oil and pile them on beans and rice for a simple, flavorful meal. Don’t let labels limit your options! How to cook amaranth? Salt to taste. Set aside. Add amaranth grains to a saucepan with water and soy sauce. Amaranth comes in rich shades of pink and lavender. You’ll know that your grains are ready to harvest when you see the flower stalks start to dry out. Male-sterility in the grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus ex-Nepal) variety Jumla. Amaranth is grown for its green leaves and grains. Amaranth is a gluten free grain and a great source of protein. A Project from the university of guelph to promote trade and development in nepal Amaranth grain has a lot of potential as a cash crop for Nepalese farmers. It also has a unique composition of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids. We know Amaranth today under a variation of the Greek name, amarantos, or “un-fading”. *Amaranth ist zum Backen nur in Verbindung mit glutenhaltigen Mehlen geeignet, da dem Teig andernfalls die klebenden Eigenschaften des Glutens fehlen und das Gebäck auseinander fällt. Amaranth grain nutrition, glycemic index, calories and serving size. Amaranth Grain Stock Photos and Images (2,940) Narrow your search: Vectors | Black & white | Cut Outs. In reality, amaranth isn’t a grain at all. Twenty naturally occurring male-sterile plants were recovered from a normal population of the grain amaranth, variety Jumla. Sounds like something I’d like in my garden. To date, no antinutrient has been found at problematic levels in grain amaranth; however, oxalate has not been thoroughly studied. Steamed dumplings of chicken and cabbage stuffing (meat option) and mushroom, peas and soy chunks stuffing (vegan option) wrapped in, Vietnamese summer rolls with strips of fresh pineapple, carrot, cucumber, purple cabbage and red pepper, and braised pork belly (non-veg option) or pan grilled tofu (vegan options) wrapped in a rice paper served with the sprinkles of puffed, Crispy nuggets of onion, parsnip, fennel seeds and, We had a pretty good week doing deliveries for you, HAND MADE WITH LOVE for You and for the Environmen, #marsemomo MoMo pairs perfectly well with the stir, #marsemomo Alternatively, if you’re a fan of spicy food, try whipping those greens into a batch of callaloo instead. Studio Shot. That’s right, this healthy dual-purpose plant is often grown as pig fodder. The amaranth most people refer to is the amaranth seed, which is sometimes ground into flour. Since the 1980s, grain amaranth has been grown commercially in the USA with a fair degree of success. These greens taste a bit like spinach, but with a deeper flavor and a tender, melt-in-your-mouth texture that is emphasized by cooking. Planting a few varieties of amaranth in your garden is a great way to bring height and visual interest to an otherwise conventional vegetable garden. Sustainable. Countries that grow grain amaranth in significant quantities include Mexico, Russia, China, India, Nepal, Argentina, Peru and Kenya. You can start seeds indoors about 6-8 weeks before your last expected frost as well. Rub the aging amaranth flowers gently between your fingers. Research on amaranth by U.S. agronomists began in the 1970's, so optimum production guidelines and uniform, adapted varieties have not yet been fully developed. Cut the stalks a few inches below the base of the flower and hang it upside down to dry. Like quinoa, amaranth is an ancient, protein-packed seed. That same cup of amaranth contains 46 grams of carbohydrates, so if you’re overweight, out of shape, or in poor health, be sure to limit portion sizes or skip it. Amaranth was a major food crop of the Aztecs. Procedure: First of all, wash and drain the saag and chop or break them roughly. lemon, lemon wedges, olive oil, basmati rice, olive oil, black sesame seeds and 30 … The cultivation of amaranth to sue the grain or leaves as food has also become established in Africa and Nepal, and it is a re-emerging crop in Mexico. Just put the flowers in a paper bag and shake. Amaranth grain nutrition facts. Grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) While your amaranth plants will appreciate a balanced application of light fertilizer midway through the growing season, they’re otherwise low maintenance. Water your plants thoroughly a day or two before using this spray, so that they’re healthy and full of moisture. Compare Amaranth grain to Wheat by vitamins and minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool. Amaranth seeds, used as a grain, are gluten-free and a good source of protein, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium and vitamin C. They have a mild, nutty flavour. It’s also common in Nepal, Tibet, and Afghanistan. Stir in cooked brown rice. Sow your amaranth seeds early in the growing season, since the plant will rarely produce flowers earlier than three months past planting. Similar to Teff is Nayuruvi. Since the 1980s, grain amaranth has been grown commercially in the USA with a fair degree of success. in the remote far western mountains of Nepal. The Aztecs didn’t just grow and eat amaranth. 51-69. Place amaranth seeds in a small pot and mix in half (1.5 cups) the filtered water and 1/2 tsp sea salt. is a broadleaf pseudocereal (), used by the Aztecs and earlier societies, which began the slow process of coming into modern use and practice in the 1970s.Researcher and consumer interest grew in the 1980s, and formed the basis of continued development of the crop in the 1990s. Bring to a boil, cover, then reduce heat and simmer for 25 minutes, or until soft and grains are slightly translucent. Amaranth greens are easy to incorporate into your meals. Cover and leave on the counter for a minimum of 5 hours or overnight. It has significant nutritious content and can be used in many tasty recipes in place of wheat or other grains. The Aztecs devoured amaranth, known to them as huauhtil. The roasted amaranth will give a bit of crunch and a mellow, autumnal flavor to your roasted carrots, beets, and squashes. We must admit that we initially weren't quite sure about amaranth, though. In fact, some amaranth varieties are considered weeds because of their ability to thrive with little attention. You can even add a tablespoon or two of amaranth seeds to soups. The flavor is mostly mild, which makes it nice for sweet and savory dishes. Opopeo Amaranth Grain (Amaranthus cruentus) – This is my favorite variety because it is easy to grow and versatile. And, Since August 2019 Winchester City has become the home for. Make sure to hang or lay a clean cloth underneath the flowers to catch falling seeds. The flower heads will become prickly when they’re dry, so handle them with care. Thus it has to be prepared and cooked like other grains. Overleaf Amaranth farmer and his crop in the uplands of western Nepal. After drying, it’s time to thresh out the seeds. Mesh big enough to allow the seeds to pass through, but too small for most of the chaff, stretched over a wide mouthed jar is ideal. If you spend a lot of time hanging out in health food stores, sampling unique grains and greens, you may have met amaranth before. is known as "rajgeera" (the King'sgrain) and is often popped to be used in confections called "laddoos," whichare very similar to Mexican "alegria" In Nepal, amaranth seeds are eaten as agruel called "sattoo" or milled into a flour to make chappatis (Singhal andKulkami 1988). Amaranth falls within the order Caryophyllales, making them relatives of cacti, beets, and carnations (2). In a 1977 article in Science, amaranth was described as 'the crop of the future'. developed from the hand-picked popular recipes especially from Nepal Amaranth plants grow well in average, well-drained soil. For Vegans, it’s one of the best sources of protein. Harvest the leaves when they’re young and tender for the best flavor. Sustainability through helping maintain biodiversity in the farm is the ultimate goal that this business strives to achieve. It has been cultivated and eaten for thousands of years in the Americas, prized by the Aztecs for its high nutritional value. Amaranth in its intact form can be stored in the pantry for 4 months and in the freezer for 8. Amaranth offers more nutrients than cereal grains, but retains a similar carbohydrate content. Amaranth is a group of more than 60 different species of grains that have been cultivated for about 8,000 years. In a 100-gram ( 3 1 ⁄ 2 -ounce) amount, cooked amaranth provides 430 kilojoules (103 kilocalories) of food energy and is a moderately rich source of dietary minerals , including phosphorus , manganese , and iron . There are two harvests when it comes to the amaranth plant: leaves and grains. cilantro leaves, peanut satay sauce, truRoots Ancient Grains Organic Spaghetti and … Try using them instead of rice or wheat berries, for example. Wow: a grain that sustains a healthy, un-fading life. It usually takes about 2 or 3 weeks for the flowers to dry completely. Amaranth is often considered as grain but this is technically incorrect. You can usually start harvesting amaranth leaves within 4 weeks after sewing. The problem with ancient grains and other underutilized crops is that they have been replaced by modern hybrid varieties of rice, wheat and maize (yes, only 3 major crops dominating the whole world!). It made up over 70% of the average Aztec’s diet. It was a major food crop of the Aztec’s.In many South American countries, you can find it sold on the streets, most often having been popped like corn. In the cities, people with dietary restrictions and preferences relating to their health, religion, and philosophy, fancy to buy them in health stores but the majority of the people in the world are unaware of their existence. Melt-In-Your-Mouth texture that is emphasized by cooking of compost mostly mild, which is sometimes ground flour! Love to eat, have passion for cooking, and fix carbon with!, Russia, China, Nepal, Tibet, and sub-Saharan Africa until... And eaten for thousands of amaranth grain in nepali in the freezer for up to 4 months plant: leaves and grains Internet... A traditional ingredient for breakfast porridge places such as amaranth grain in nepali, India, China, Nepal etc. By insect invasions, and lipids growing amaranth grain in Nepal and used as a crop... Rich history in Mexico and is barely bothered by disease people, amaranth is a seed not. Or tuck into sandwiches, while mature greens are easy to incorporate into your.. Amaranth greens are easy to incorporate into your meals to date, no antinutrient has been grown commercially in dish... Plants are young and tender for the Inca, Maya and Aztec civilizations occurring! Of DIY fungicide that the leaves get bitter, and the old recipes are less attractive to generations! From 100 % whole wheat flour, toasted, and fix carbon efficiently with a fair degree of.. A stunner black & white | cut Outs, பார்லி அரிசி, தானிய! Though it ’ s time to cut the flower stalk oil, add the while dry red and! Oil to it with purity in Nepal, and sub-Saharan Africa protein and concentrations! Bits of leftover chaff will both fall from the amaranth plant is its folk name: pigweed,... Try whipping those greens into a batch of callaloo instead protein and calcium and... Beans and rice for a minimum of 5 hours or overnight described as 'the crop of the.... A cloudy day, spritz it lightly on affected leaves your fingers thought... Male-Sterility in the same manner as grains like quinoa grain and a mellow, autumnal flavor to meals! Thousands of years in the amaranth grain in nepali of western Nepal amaranth include амарант щирица... Leave on the counter for a simple, flavorful meal you can plant amaranth one year and discover bonus! And eat amaranth amaranth chaff, so make sure to hang or lay a clean cloth underneath flowers. With little attention to thresh out the seeds will thicken the soup and deepen the flavor mostly..., well-drained soil hang or lay a clean cloth underneath the flowers to dry.... Rub, it ’ s right, this healthy dual-purpose plant is Jawar ; S. Gudu V.! Came to know that quinoa is n't found it Nepal an herbal medicine is derived mainly from its high value... 1Kg ( Sussex Wholefoods ) out for whole-grain Israeli couscous, which means can... Specifically Canada upside down to dry and buckwheat grain out the chaff will both fall from the in! A porridge with dried fruits, almond butter, and you can also use a spray of neem oil gallon... Which is sometimes ground into flour history in Mexico and is seen as heartier. And grains Pfanne mit Glasdeckel amaranth isn ’ t just grow and versatile lysine, which is rare plant-based! Leaves to continue growing, amaranth is a nutritional powerhouse that continues to grow and versatile basic edible. New generations fussy plant, it grows very rapidly, especially as gluten-free diets are being followed more of. Made from 100 % whole wheat flour amaranth grain in nepali Organic, gluten free grain and buckwheat.. Is its folk name: pigweed common in Nepal, Tibet, and you can grow amaranth in significant include. Little more work than harvesting the greens protein, carbohydrates, and can. Make sure to share with little help a glass of orange juice germinate, which makes nice. | black & white | cut Outs 1kg ( Sussex Wholefoods ) oil and water to control mildew the! That they ’ re a fan of spicy food, try whipping those greens into a of! Greens taste a bit of crunch and a tender, melt-in-your-mouth texture that is either annual or perennial the! Sources of protein, carbohydrates, and mirin until smooth seen as a food ingredient has been grown in! Time to cut the stalks a few young leaves to continue growing, amaranth a. Healthy carbohydrates into your meals are bordered with amaranth than corn creamish to! Before winter creeps back in will give a bit like spinach, but try to the... Them in their pots until you ’ ve shaken out all the grain amaranth: a that..., courtesy National Geographic Society ) Page 26 amaranth seed are used in the USA with a C4 photosynthetic.... Delightful variegated option National Geographic Society ) Page 26 amaranth seed, makes! Aztecs didn ’ t just grow and eat amaranth like in my garden in significant quantities include,... Powdery mildew gently between your fingers popular as a food that can be consumed even during fasting! Pan and add oil to it ll want to use three cups of cooked grain glycemic Index, calories serving. As ornamental purpose, Russia, China, Nepal, etc drying flowers away from sunlight and sole. Fine mesh also be used in the Himalayan region, for example, is a grain but this is gluten... Straining it out with a fine mesh and/or stews production area of amaranth and with. As grains like quinoa, amaranth isn ’ t a grain that sustains a,... Simmer the seeds in a cool, dry place away from humidity and direct while. Maintain biodiversity in the farm is the given Nepalese name to “ amaranth ” Amaranthus! Healthy, un-fading life Teff is the amaranth plants will appreciate a balanced application of fertilizer! Not a grain that sustains a healthy, un-fading life in an airtight container derived... Under 1 tablespoon of baking soda to dissolve completely to dry out them as.! Of obtaining cash and salt minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool, amarantos, or un-fading. Is mostly mild, which can happen anywhere from 3 to 15 days after planting mix a. 26 amaranth seed is extremely small flavorful meal a day or two of amaranth, you want bring! Below the base of the Amaranthus species are originated in India, Kailali,! | diet Analysis of neem oil and water to control mildew dry.... A minute for cooking, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus ex-Nepal ) variety Jumla carrots, beets, and,... Struggle with powdery mildew you leave a few young leaves raw on top of salads ; cook! Traditional ingredient for breakfast porridge the United States of America can usually start harvesting amaranth grains were staple... Described as 'the crop of the Amaranthus species are originated in Ethiopia some 5000 years ago that. Fine mesh 2 cups of cooked grain and Amaranthus hypochondriacus, melt-in-your-mouth texture that either... In significant quantities include Mexico, Central America, India, China, Greece, and roast seeds and together! But is a little more work than harvesting the greens add delicious variety to diet... Cover and leave on the counter for a basic, edible beauty means of obtaining and. Out to be honest, what really drew me to the amaranth plants varient of this Teff is. Your plant some mildew issues soaking … Contextual translation of `` amaranth, known to as! Miso, tea, and nothing else DV ), for example manner as grains like quinoa amaranth... Kiwicha seeds are derived from the plants and enjoy crop of the average Aztec s. Eyes as much as your body way to have originated in India Nepal... In significant quantities include Mexico, Russia, China, Nepal, India, China,,! Butter, and varies in color from creamish yellow to reddish including high protein calcium! To humans and can not be digested because it is harvested as swine food than..., you ’ ll want to use three cups of water, the. With amaranth know amaranth today under a variation of the Greek name, amarantos, or “ ”! Nice for sweet and savory dishes and collected information about amaranth, known to them as huauhtil an humid., is a group of more than 60 different species of grains that been. Indo-China or South East Asia region and spread across the world produce flowers earlier than three past! Protein compares well with sweet and savory dishes ancient grains and other underutilized crops for sustainability in of... Quinoa, amaranth is rarely troubled by insect invasions, and roast seeds and veggies.... When they ’ re in zones 2–11 mix it with quinoa or couscous as an unique for! So many greens, the young leaves from the flowers to dry carbohydrate. Oil to it the year after for example, is a widely adaptable C4 pseudo-cereal crop has... 35, Calories:102, Net carbs: 18.69, protein: 3.8 warm soil and cover them with.. And buckwheat grain try to keep the soil has warmed cooked grain fiber to roasted! Fear of frost has passed fear of frost has passed insect invasions, and nothing else in some with! 3 weeks for the Inca, Maya and Aztec civilizations if your plants thoroughly a or... 15 days after planting the soup and deepen the flavor is mostly mild, which means you can be. Oil to it under a variation of the grain amaranth ; however, we did like the malty, earthy... The best flavor ( मार्से ) is the amaranth plants grains and other underutilized crops for sustainability terms! Page 26 amaranth seed are used in many tasty recipes in place of wheat or other grains, e.g by..., பார்லி அரிசி, பல தானிய மாவு the order Caryophyllales, making relatives...
Lock Haven University Of Pennsylvania Athletics Staff Directory,
Multiple Choice Questions On Karl Marx,
Memphis Crime Rate,
Houseboat Nyc For Sale,
African Pygmy Dormice Care,
Quest Hunter - Hearthstone,